The kidneys have important functions within organisms such as detoxification, regulation of extracellular fluids, homeostasis and excretion of toxic metabolites.  Impairment of normal kidney function can lead to severe diseases and, if untreated, to death. Such impairment can be caused by substances that interact with molecular mechanisms leading to nephrotoxicity, including renal tubular toxicity, inflammation, glomerular damage, crystal nephropathy and thrombic microangiopathy.  One typical mechanism is that the drug induces inflammatory responses and oxidative stress that lead to necrosis and apoptosis what results in tissue damage, reduced Glomerular Filtration Rates and acute kidney injury. (Figure1).
Figure1: Common mechanism that induces kidney dysfunction. Adapted and modified from Kristen Renee McSweeney et al. 2021 
Therefore, especially during drug development and in the food industry, where exposure of substances to the kidney is high, assessment for neurotoxic risk of compounds is key to ensure the development of safe and sustainable products which customers can use without any concern. At SaferWorldbyDesign we provide solutions with which you can characterize your compounds and based on this make important decisions throughout the development of your products to ensure that your products are safe and sustainable.
 Nephrotoxicity: Role and significance of renal biomarkers in the early detection of acute renal injury by Marwa S. Al-Naimi, Huda A. Rasheed, Nawar R. Hussein, Hayder M. Al-Kuraishy and Ali I. Al-Gareeb in the Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research – Wolters Kluwer – Medknow, 2019.
 Mechanisms of Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Pathological Mechanisms, Pharmacological Interventions and Genetic Mitigations by Kristen Renee McSweeney, Laura Kate Gadanec, Tawar Qaradakhi, Benazir Ashiana Ali, Anthony Zulli and Vasso Apostolopoulos in Cancers, 13(7), 2021.