Liver toxicity can be caused by chemicals through a wide range of mechanistic interactions. Mechanisms for liver toxicity include hepatocellular apoptosis, Kupffer cell activation (ROS, cytokine, and chemokine release), neutrophil infiltration, peroxy-nitrite production, cholestasis and mitochondrial dysfunction which constitute key events for liver toxicity adverse outcome pathways. Drugs and other chemical compounds are directly transported to and transformed in the liver where they are metabolized, it is an important goal to predict and avoid potential liver toxic effects during new product development.

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